South Carolina

Redcliffe Plantation – Beech Island, South Carolina


South Carolina  |  SC Picture Project  |  Aiken County Photos  |  Redcliffe Plantation

Located near Aiken, Beech Island’s Redcliffe Plantation was built for former United States congressman, United States senator, and South Carolina governor James Henry Hammond (1807-1864). Construction began in 1857, and by 1859 the Hammonds were occupying the home. Though the home originally featured Georgian architecture, later alterations rendered it more Greek Revival in design.

Redcliffe Plantation Home

Larry Gleason of Aiken © Do Not Use Without Written Consent

 

Soon after the Hammond family moved in, the open space beneath the manse was bricked in to block cold drafts that penetrated the floor of the home’s interior. In 1886, second floor piazzas were removed by Henry Hammond, son of James Henry Hammond, due to water damage. Many architects consider this modification one that ruined the symmetry of the home. Yet another necessary change was made to the house in 1901 when the cupola that once graced the roof deemed a fire hazard and replaced with the widow’s walk that remains today.

Redcliffe Plantation

Mike Stroud of Bluffton, 2008 © Do Not Use Without Written Consent

 

James Henry Hammond was a pedophile who kept detailed and shameless accounts of the assaults in his diary. He molested all four of his nieces, the daughters of his sister-in-law and Wade Hampton II. He also raped at least one of his slaves, Sally, by whom he had a daughter, Louisa. When Louisa turned 12, he raped her too. His son also raped Louisa, and she bore multiple children by the two Hammond men.

Redcliffe Plantation House

Larry Gleason of Aiken © Do Not Use Without Written Consent

 

The elder Hammond, who owned 300 slaves, was known for his ardent pro-slavery stance and once argued, “I firmly believe that American slavery is not only not a sin but especially commanded by God through Moses and approved by Christ through His Apostles.”

Redcliffe Plantation in the Snow

Larry Gleason of Aiken © Do Not Use Without Written Consent

 

During his political career, Hammond advocated for nullification, though later, while serving in the US Senate, he opposed secession, believing the South’s wealth would serve it well in negotiations with the Union. However, when South Carolina signed the Ordinance of Secession, Hammond resigned his seat in step with his peers.

Redcliffe Plantation Porch

Larry Gleason of Aiken © Do Not Use Without Written Consent

 

James Henry Hammond was an advocate for agrarians and is credited with the phrase, “Cotton is king.” He was an experimental (though some say inept) planter and formed the Beech Island Agricultural Society, first called the Beech Island Farmers Club, in 1847. The club still meets the first Saturday of each month and is composed of Hammond descendants as well as other descendants of original members.

Redcliffe Rocking Chairs

Larry Gleason of Aiken © Do Not Use Without Written Consent

 

Four generations of Hammonds occupied this mansion. Governor Hammond’s great-grandson, John Shaw Billings (1898-1975), who served as the managing editor of Time and Life magazines, brought the Redcliffe mansion back to life in the 1930s. Billings donated the property to the State of South Carolina in 1973, and today Redcliffe Plantation is managed by the Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism. Find out more about SC governors and learn more about SC plantations.

Redcliffe Plantation – Interior Views of the Redcliffe Home


These images show the interior of Redcliffe, from Governor Hammond’s study to the bedrooms upstairs.

Redcliffe Plantation Bedroom

Larry Gleason of Aiken © Do Not Use Without Written Consent

 

Governor Hammonds Study at Redcliffe

Larry Gleason of Aiken © Do Not Use Without Written Consent

 

Redcliffe Plantation Grounds


The following images show Redcliffe’s grounds, including its stables, a slave cabin, and a vegetable garden. The abutting fields were used in agricultural experiments with vineyards as well as fruit trees.

Redcliffe Slave Homes

Larry Gleason of Aiken © Do Not Use Without Written Consent

 

Redcliffe Plantation Tree

Larry Gleason of Aiken © Do Not Use Without Written Consent

 

Redcliffe Plantation Stables

Larry Gleason of Aiken © Do Not Use Without Written Consent

 

Redcliffe Plantation Slave Cabin

Larry Gleason of Aiken © Do Not Use Without Written Consent

 

Redcliffe Plantation Garden

Larry Gleason of Aiken © Do Not Use Without Written Consent

 

Magnolia Lane at Redcliffe Plantation


Redcliffe Entrance Fall

Larry Gleason of Aiken © Do Not Use Without Written Consent

 

Redcliffe Plantation Entrance

Larry Gleason of Aiken © Do Not Use Without Written Consent

 

Hammond Cemetery at Redcliffe Plantation


Also known as Beech Island Cemetery, this Aiken County cemetery is the final resting place for US congressman and South Carolina governor James Henry Hammond. The cemetery was established as a private burial ground for the Hammond family and their descendants in 1864, the year of the former governor’s death.

Beech Island Cemetery

Julie Buckner of North Augusta, 2013 © Do Not Use Without Written Consent

 

The cemetery is near Hammond’s grand antebellum mansion. It is not to be confused with another historic cemetery in Beech Island, Zubly Cemetery.

Redcliffe Plantation is listed in the National Register:

(Redcliffe Plantation State Park) Redcliffe is representative of the architectural styles in the South during the early nineteenth century. Begun in 1857 by James Henry Hammond, it is a two-story house of wooden construction. Built on brick pillars like many of the lowcountry houses, Redcliffe maintained the pattern of a central hall with four rooms, so characteristic of the Carolina upcountry. Double-decked porches were built on all four sides. Only the front and back porches had steps down to the ground. Large French windows in all rooms opened on to the porches, upper and lower. An enclosed cupola or observatory, consisting almost entirely of windows, was built on the roof between the two chimneys.

In 1886, James Hammond’s son Henry removed the upper porch and moved the main stairs to the corner of the new porch. In 1901, the observatory on the roof was removed and replaced by a widow’s walk. Originally Georgian in style, the house now features many Greek Revival elements. Two slave quarters remain, illustrating the pattern of life prior to the Civil War. A young landscape architect, Louis Berckman from Belgium, planned the grounds at Redcliffe. The home’s builder, James H. Hammond, was elected governor of South Carolina in 1842 and served two terms. He was elected to United States Congress in 1834 and then to United States Senate in 1857. A later owner of Redcliffe is John Shaw Billings, a descendant of Hammond. Billings was Managing Editor of both TIME and LIFE magazines and eventually Editorial Director of TIME, Inc.

Magnolia Lane Redcliffe

Jenks Farmer of Beech Island, 2012 © Do Not Use Without Written Consent

 

Contributor Jenks Farmer shares the following about Magnolia Lane: “Redcliffe’s Magnolia Lane was SC Historic Tree of the Year, 2012. It was planned and planted with the help of two significant horticulturist (Berkman Brothers) who’s nursery became the Augusta National. The Lane was the entrance to Redcliffe and it connected two house: those of father and son Hammonds. Today, though partially disrupted, it connects Redcliffe and the Farmer’s home.”


Redcliffe Plantation Info


Address: 181 Redcliffe Road, Beech Island, SC 29842
GPS Coordinates: 33.418241,-81.868347
Website: http://www.southcarolinaparks.com/redcliffe/


Redcliffe Plantation Map




Redcliffe Plantation – Add Info and More Photos


The purpose of the South Carolina Picture Project is to celebrate the beauty of the Palmetto State and create a permanent digital repository for our cultural landmarks and natural landscapes. We invite you to add additional pictures (paintings, photos, etc) of Redcliffe Plantation, and we also invite you to add info, history, stories, and travel tips. Together, we hope to build one of the best and most loved SC resources in the world!


Thoughts?


The South Carolina Picture Project is a volunteer project which earns no profit. We work hard to ensure its accuracy, but if you see a mistake, please know that it is not intentional and that we are more than happy to update our information if it is incorrect. That said, our goal is to create something positive for our state, so please make your comments constructive if you would like them to be published. Thank you!



14 Comments about Redcliffe Plantation

Doris SingletonNo Gravatar says:
April 24th, 2018 at 12:01 am

A lot of my ancestors sill live around Aiken, Be Happy Island and Redcliffe, descendants of slavery, would like to find info on some slave owners to find a lead, maybe a name.

SCIWAYNo Gravatar says:
March 8th, 2017 at 9:22 am

Here is the official website for Redcliffe Plantation. Hopefully, someone here can help with your questions. Best of luck! http://www.southcarolinaparks.com/redcliffe/introduction.aspx

Eyvaine D WalkerNo Gravatar says:
March 7th, 2017 at 6:30 pm

How can I get the slaves’ names from Redcliffe Plantation and from other surrounding plantations also? How to submit permission to use the slave housing for my family reunion event?

SCIWAYNo Gravatar says:
December 5th, 2016 at 7:14 am

Hello, and thank you for writing. Please send us any information you would like for us to add to https://www.sciway.net/forms/add-content.html We look forward to hearing from you.

lanique golphinNo Gravatar says:
December 3rd, 2016 at 4:38 pm

I am a descendant of the former slaves on the Galphin plantation. As history has said, we currently spell it Golphin. I would love to see where my ancestors came from and how they lived specifically. I also know of the church we started and of his plantation in August, Georgia. That’s where a lot of my older relatives came from. Please email me back.

Larry Gleason says:
May 6th, 2016 at 4:33 pm

Actually, there are continuous public and non-public events involving slave life at Redcliffe Plantation plus lots of real historical information about the slaves in the park’s monthly newsletter. In fact, a non-public three-day weekend joint family reunion of Recliffe slave and owner ancestors was held at Redcliffe and Kathwood plantations during July 2012. It also included visits to all the cemeteries associated with the plantations.

Marche Singleton says:
May 6th, 2016 at 3:34 pm

I am an African American whose ancestors were slaves from countries unknown and an Irish grandfather. When I see the word Plantation it gives me pause. When I see the adverisements for the Plantation house itself, that has been so neatly kept it makes very sad. There is no indication of slaves, their misery, their loss or their exclusion from the history that made that property a plantation. My wish, think aboutt the forty-two million African Americans, all whose relatives started in this country on such land. Remember them…As the ancestors of the plantation owners rest at night in that house think of the resting places for the slaves who made that possible……

KarenNo Gravatar says:
September 20th, 2015 at 10:27 pm

Slave cabin does have windows. They are boarded up.

Larry GleasonNo Gravatar says:
September 1st, 2015 at 6:50 pm

The slave “cabin” is a duplex and there are two large windows per unit. Just no windows on the side with the two entrance doors.

SCIWAYNo Gravatar says:
June 12th, 2015 at 6:01 am

We have not been able to locate a photo, but the National Register does say: “In 1886, James Hammond’s son Henry removed the upper porch and moved the main stairs to the corner of the new porch.” We, too, would love to see an old photo, if anybody has one!

Jerri WhiteNo Gravatar says:
June 12th, 2015 at 12:54 am

I made my first visit to Redcliffe yesterday on return from trip to GA. I had looked forward to seeing the house for many years…but, although beautiful, it is not like an old photo of it that I have seen somewhere in the past. Perhaps it was when there was still an upper porch and observatory? It was most unusual. Does anyone have a copy?

Karyn White says:
January 25th, 2015 at 7:21 pm

It’s a shame to see that the stable has windows.= and the slaves cabins didn't have windows. Wow!!!

George HofmeierNo Gravatar says:
January 16th, 2014 at 7:47 pm

I’m looking for any local stories handed fown from descendants of slaves. Would you know of any? I want to record what I can before the older generation passes and the stories are lost forever. I have severe epilepsy so I cannot come visit your park.

Terrell WilliamsNo Gravatar says:
April 5th, 2011 at 9:44 pm

I would love to see the place my (supposed) great, great, great-grandfather constructed.






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