South Carolina Picture Project

Charlesfort & Santa Elena – Parris Island, South Carolina


South Carolina  |  SC Picture Project  |  Beaufort County Photos  |  Charlesfort & Santa Elena


Edit This Page  |  Leave A Comment

In 1562 Jean Ribaut (also spelled Ribault) sailed to the New World from France with a group of Huguenots. Deeming there “no faurer or fytter place” than the land along the Beaufort River, he named the settlement Port Royal.

Port Royal Marsh at Charlesfort

Josh Whiteside of Beaufort, 2013 © Do Not Use Without Written Consent

The French established their new colony at today’s Parris Island, just south of Port Royal, and called it Charlesfort. Ribaut then sailed back to France to acquire more ships and supplies. The settlers he left behind did not fare well, as they had not planted any crops and their provisions burned. They built a boat caulked with rosin and Spanish moss and attempted to sail across the Atlantic, but the voyage ended in disaster. As Dr. Walter Edgar writes in South Carolina: A History, “The return journey was a hell of starvation, cannibalism, and madness.”

Jean Ribaut Monument

Pete Lawrence of Sumter, 2015 © Do Not Use Without Written Consent

Above is a monument to Ribaut, which reads, Here stood Charlesfort / Built 1562 by Jean Ribaut for Admiral Coligny / A Refuge For Huguenots and to the Glory of France. The monument was erected in 1925, after an archaeologist believed he had found the remnants of Charlesfort. However, these remnants were actually Spanish. In 1995, archaeologists from the University of South Carolina discovered Charlesfort’s true location nearby – under a later Spanish fort called San Felipe, which served as the anchor of the 1566 settlement of this same site by Spaniards.

Though Port Royal is often credited as the site of the first European settlement in our state, it is possible that it was actually the site of the first European settlement in the continental United States. In 1514, nearly 50 years before Charles Fort was established, Pedro Salazar of Hispaniola was commissioned by wealthy Spanish officer Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon to explore more of the New World. Salazar landed somewhere along the coast between North Carolina and Georgia at a site he named “Land of the Giants” in honor of the natives’ size.

Ribaut Monument Port Royal

Pete Lawrence of Sumter, 2015 © Do Not Use Without Written Consent

Excited about Salazar’s discovery, Ayllon commissioned subsequent Spanish voyages in 1521 and 1525. On August 18, 1525, Captain Pedro Quexos came upon a point he called La Punta de Santa Elena after the virgin Saint Helen of Auxerre, France, whose martyrdom is remembered that day. Though the location of this place is no longer known, scholars now suspect it may have been Tybee Island in Georgia.

Salazar, Quexos, and Quexos’s fellow captain Francisco Gordillo did not linger along the Atlantic Coast but reported back to Hispanola (Quexos’s ship was lost during the return of his second trip). In 1526 Allyon himself sailed with six ships and more than 600 West Indian settlers and slaves. Their colony, San Miguel de Gualdape, predated Jamestown by 45 years and Saint Augustine by three years. Many twentieth century historians believed they landed at Port Royal, though others now place their location nearer the mouth of the Savannah River.

Santa Elena Monument

SCIWAY, 2008 © Do Not Use Without Written Consent

Regardless of its location, San Miguel de Gualdape was short-lived. Disease, hunger, and slave rebellion caused most of the group to perish during their first winter, including Allyon. The few who survived sailed back to Hispaniola. Lawrence Sanders Rowland, author of The History of Beaufort County, South Carolina: 1514-1861, describes their voyage as follows:

Faced with the onset of winter with no supplies, surrounded by hostile natives, and thoroughly demoralized, the settlers of San Miguel de Gualdape abandoned their colony and set sail for Hispaniola. On the bitter cold passage home seven men froze and one man, driven insane by hunger, ate the frost-bitten flesh from his own bones. The body of … Lucas Vasquez de Allyon was lost at sea; of the 600 original colonists only 150 survived to return to Hispaniola in 1527.

Interestingly, one lasting result of these early explorations came in the form of a name. Santa Elena carried over to a later Spanish settlement at Parris Island, established in 1566, and today Saint Helena is the name of an island located near Port Royal. This makes it one of the oldest names in America.

Parris Island Moat

SCIWAY, 2008 © Do Not Use Without Written Consent

Various settlers claimed Port Royal over the subsequent years, including the Spanish and French (again), along with the Dutch, English, and Scottish. Troops fought for the port town in two wars: Colonists defended Port Royal from the British during the Revolutionary War, and Confederates surrendered it to the United States Navy during the Civil War.

After the Union victory, the town became the site of the Port Royal Experiment. The Port Royal Experiment was a government program that taught newly-freed slaves to operate and manage land abandoned by plantation owners. On January 1, 1863, the Emancipation Proclamation was read to thousands of former slaves at nearby Camp Saxton. Camp Saxton was the site occupied by members of the First South Carolina Volunteers, the first black regiment of the United States Army. On January 1, 2013, the town celebrated the 150th anniversary of the reading of the Emancipation Proclamation at the Camp Saxton site under what is now known as the Proclamation Tree.

Learn more about the history of Port Royal and Parris Island.

Reflections on Port Royal


Contributor Josh Whiteside shares his experience photographing the beautiful Port Royal marsh scene at the top of this page: “I wanted to capture the sunrise over the marsh with an oak covered in Spanish moss. This image sums up what its like to be in the Lowcountry of South Carolina.”

Add your own reflections here.


Charlesfort & Santa Elena Map




Charlesfort & Santa Elena – Add Info and More Photos


The purpose of the South Carolina Picture Project is to celebrate the beauty of the Palmetto State and create a permanent digital repository for our cultural landmarks and natural landscapes. We invite you to add additional pictures (paintings, photos, etc) of Charlesfort & Santa Elena, and we also invite you to add info, history, stories, and travel tips. Together, we hope to build one of the best and most loved SC resources in the world!


Please Share Your Thoughts!


The South Carolina Picture Project is a volunteer project which earns no profit. We work hard to ensure its accuracy, but if you see a mistake, please know that it is not intentional and that we are more than happy to update our information if it is incorrect. That said, our goal is to create something positive for our state, so please make your comments constructive if you would like them to be published. Thank you!







Charlesfort & Santa Elena - Related Entries


Cypress Wetlands and Historic Walking Trail

Union Church
Union Church
Port Royal


Naval Hospital Beaufort

Port Royal Marsh at Charlesfort

Sands Beach
Sands Beach
Port Royal


Port Royal SC Sunset
Battery Creek
Port Royal


Port Royal
Port Royal
Port Royal





SC PICTURE PROJECT

Join Us on Facebook
Our 5 Goals
Our Contributors
Add Info
Add Pictures
Search for Pictures
Missing Landmarks

SC TOWNS & LANDMARKS

Abbeville ACE Basin Aiken Allendale Anderson Awendaw Bamberg Banks Barns & Farms Barnwell Batesburg-Leesville Beaches Beaufort Beech Island Belton Bennettsville Bishopville Blackville Bluffton Bridges Bygone Landmarks Camden Carnegie Libraries Cemeteries Charleston Charleston Navy Base Cheraw Chester Churches Clemson Clinton Clio Colleges Columbia Conway Courthouses Darlington Denmark Dillon Donalds Easley Edgefield Edisto Elloree Fairfax Florence Folly Beach Forests and Nature Preserves Gaffney Garden City Beach Georgetown Glenn Springs Graniteville Greeleyville Greenville Greenwood Greer Hamburg Hampton Hartsville Hemingway Hilton Head Historical Photos Historic Houses Honea Path Hopkins Hunting Island Isle of Palms Jails James Island Johns Island Johnsonville Johnston Kiawah Island Kingstree Lake City Lake Marion Lakes Lancaster Landrum Latta Laurens Lexington Libraries Lighthouses Little River Manning Marion McClellanville McCormick Military Mills Moncks Corner Mountains Mount Carmel Mount Pleasant Mullins Murrells Inlet Myrtle Beach National Register Newberry Ninety Six North Augusta North Charleston North Myrtle Beach Orangeburg Pacolet Parks Pawleys Island Pendleton Pickens Piers Pinopolis Plantations Port Royal Post Offices Ravenel Restaurants Ridge Spring Ridgeway Rivers Roadside Oddities Robert Mills Rock Hill Rockville Rosenwald Schools Salters Saluda Savannah River Site SC Artists SC Heroes of the Alamo Schools Seneca Shrimp Boats Society Hill Spartanburg Sports Springs St. George St. Helena Island St. Matthews Stores Sullivan's Island Summerton Summerville Sumter Sunset Synagogues Town Clocks Trains & Depots Trees Trenton Turbeville Ulmer Union Wadmalaw Island Walhalla Walterboro Waterfalls Water Towers West Columbia Westminster Winnsboro Yemassee York

© 2017 SCIWAY.net, LLC All rights reserved.