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South Carolina SC African-Americans Free Blacks in Charleston For More Information

If you would like more information about free blacks before the Civil War, look for these books and articles at your local library or ask your librarian to get them for you through Inter-Library Loan.
  • Berlin, Ira. 1974. Slaves Without Masters: The Free Negro in the Antebellum South. New York: New York University Press.

  • Campbell, Edward D.C. and Kym S. Rice, editors. Before Freedom Came: African-American Life in the Antebellum South. Charlottesville: The University Press of Virginia.

  • Fitchett, E. Horace. 1940. The Traditions of the Free Negro in Charleston, South Carolina. The Journal of Negro History, v. 25, pp. 139-152.

  • Grimes, Kimberly, Dale Rosengarten, Martha Zierden, and Elizabeth Alston. 1987. Between the Tracks: The Heritage of Charleston's East Side Community. Leaflet Number 30. Charleston: The Charleston Museum.

  • Johnson, Michel P. and James L. Roark. 1984. No Chariot Let Down: Charleston's Free People of Color on the Eve of the Civil War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

  • Powers, Bernard E., Jr. 1994. Black Charlestonians: A Social History, 1822-1885. Fayetteville: The University of Arkansas Press.

  • Trinkley, Michael and Debi Hacker. 1996. The Other Side of Charleston: Archaeological Survey of the Saks Fifth Avenue Location, Charleston, South Carolina. Research Series 45. Columbia: Chicora Foundation, Inc.


A Demographic Overview
Before the Civil War
Earning A Living as a Free Black
Where Free Blacks Lived
Free Blacks During the Civil War
Exploring Free Persons of Color
More Information
The Chicora Foundation


Understanding Slavery
Free Blacks in Charleston
Preserving Black Cemeteries
Mitchelville Experiment
Quash Stevens Letters